Terminology 2019-02-24T18:38:42+00:00

Project Description


  • Aggregates: Aggregates can be coarse or fine. This is determined by whether the material passes through a sieve of a specified aperture size or whether the sieve retains them. Stone that has been broken up, gravels, sand and slag come into the category of aggregates. The term aggregate can also be a general term describing any quarried or dug material that has been through a grading process.
  • Base or Base Material: A layer of aggregate, of particular thickness, to suite the installation requirements. It is laid after your sub-base has been prepared, and before your sand bedding is implemented. It provides support to the sand and pavers, particularly when compacted intensely.
  • Cement: A compound of burnt lime, clays and shale, ground to a powder, which when mixed with water hardens fast. It is used as a binding agent in concrete and in mortar.
  • Chamfer: A beveled edged of concrete added to a pavers edge, which allows added security at the edges of driveways. patios and pathways.
  • Compaction: The use of a piece of equipment to intensely pack soil, base material and sand bedding. Often using a powered tamper or plate compactor.
  • Edgings: Blocks laid at the edge of driveways and patios.
  • Edge Restraint: An edging that provides support and holds pavers in place, can be hidden or exposed.
  • Efflorescence: The white hazy discharge, consisting of calcium carbonate. It appears on the surface of your pavements, it is a natural occurrence, reacting to the materials used in the pavement. It can disappear over time, or there are cleaning products that will help to eliminate the problem.
  • Footings: A concrete layer which is required to build walls on.

  • Gravel: Is a natural mineral aggregate from natural disintegration of rock. It consists mainly of rounded pebbles for sub-angular rock fragments. It normally occurs in sand and gravel deposits or detritus.
  • Herringbone Pattern: Is a type of pattern in which pavers can be laid, in either 45”or 90”rotation.
  • Hoggin: It is the clay in hoggin that holds the mixture together when compacted. Hoggin is frequently used on top of good quality sand and gravel, and it is often required to meet the Type 2 GSB specification with no further treatment. The clay constituent can be high for certain purposes. It is most often used in foundations and on minor roads.
  • Joint: The spaces between block paving, patio slabs and brickwork.
  • Kiln Dried Sand: Kiln Dried Sand is silica sand which has been dried in a kiln to remove all the moisture before it is ready to use. It is an extremely fine, dry sand which enables it to flow easily into the joints and gaps in block paving.Kiln Dried Sand has many applications but it is primarily used for the joint filling of block paving. This helps to prevent water ingress into the sub-base and stops the blocks moving or becoming loose – whilst allowing the surface to remain more flexible than many other surfacing materials.
  • Kerbs: A Stone edging to a raised path, driveway or patio.  It can also be used for flower beds and come in a rounded or square edge.
  • Laying Pattern: The sequence in which the pavers are installed, creating a geometric pattern. There are many patterns available to choose from.
  • Mortar: A mix of sand, cement and water used to bind together blocks, bricks and building stone in construction work.
  • Paver Splitter: Used for the cutting of pavers, may be hand operated or machine operated, and is sometimes hydraulically assisted.
  • Permeable Paving: One of the major innovations in block paving in recent years has been the development of permeable paving blocks which allow surface water to drain between the blocks and into a specially designed sub-bse where the water can then be held before leaving site.
  • Screeding: The action of leveling a sand bedding, using wood or metal pieces to assist.
  • Sealer: A liquid solution which coats and protects your pavers and pavements. Sealers help with waterproofing, color enhancing and stain removal.
  • Sharp Sand: Otherwise known as ‘Builders Sand’, grittier than normal sand and provides a base for many driveways and patios.
  • Topsoil: The surface soil, normally containing organic matter.
  • Wacker Plate: Vibrating machine used to compact and solidify materials and blocks.
  • Weed Proof Membrane(Geotextile): A layer of fabric laid to help prevent the growth of weeds through driveways and patios.